Objective: We evaluated whether percent time in target range (PTTR), risk of over-anticoagulation [international normalized ratio (INR)>4], and risk of hemorrhage differ by race. As PTTR is a strong predictor of hemorrhage risk, we also determined the influence of PTTR on the risk of hemorrhage by race.
Participants and methods: Among 1326 warfarin users, PTTR was calculated as the percentage of interpolated INR values within the target range of 2.0-3.0. PTTR was also categorized as poor (PTTR<60%), good (60≤PTTR<70%), or excellent (PTTR≥70%) anticoagulation control. Over-anticoagulation was defined as INR more than 4 and major hemorrhages included serious, life-threatening, and fatal bleeding episodes. Logistic regression and survival analyses were carried out to evaluate the association of race with PTTR (≥60 vs. <60) and major hemorrhages, respectively.
Results: Compared with African Americans, European Americans had higher PTTR (57.6 vs. 49.1%; P<0.0001) and were more likely to attain 60≤PTTR<70% (22.9 vs. 13.1%; P<0.001) or PTTR of at least 70% (26.9 vs. 18.2%; P=0.001). Older (>65 years) patients without venous thromboembolism indication and chronic kidney disease were more likely to attain PTTR of at least 60%. After accounting for clinical and genetic factors, and PTTR, African Americans had a higher risk of hemorrhage [hazard ratio (HR)=1.58; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-2.41; P=0.034]. Patients with 60≤PTTR<70% (HR=0.62; 95% CI: 0.38-1.02; P=0.058) and PTTR of at least 70% (HR=0.27; 95% CI: 0.15-0.49; P<0.001) had a lower risk of hemorrhage compared with those with PTTR less than 60%.
Conclusion: Despite the provision of warfarin management through anticoagulation clinics, African Americans achieve a lower overall PTTR and have a significantly higher risk of hemorrhage. Personalized medicine interventions tailored to African American warfarin users need to be developed.