Cardamom powder supplementation prevents obesity, improves glucose intolerance, inflammation and oxidative stress in liver of high carbohydrate high fat diet induced obese rats

Lipids Health Dis. 2017 Aug 14;16(1):151. doi: 10.1186/s12944-017-0539-x.


Background: Cardamom is a well-known spice in Indian subcontinent, used in culinary and traditional medicine practices since ancient times. The current investigation was untaken to evaluate the potential benefit of cardamom powder supplementation in high carbohydrate high fat (HCHF) diet induced obese rats.

Method: Male Wistar rats (28 rats) were divided into four different groups such as Control, Control + cardamom, HCHF, HCHF + cardamom. High carbohydrate and high fat (HCHF) diet was prepared in our laboratory. Oral glucose tolerance test, organs wet weight measurements and oxidative stress parameters analysis as well as liver marker enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were assayed on the tissues collected from the rats. Plasma lipids profiles were also measured in all groups of animals. Moreover, histological staining was also performed to evaluate inflammatory cells infiltration and fibrosis in liver.

Results: The current investigation showed that, HCHF diet feeding in rats developed glucose intolerance and increased peritoneal fat deposition compared to control rats. Cardamom powder supplementation improved the glucose intolerance significantly (p > 0.05) and prevented the abdominal fat deposition in HCHF diet fed rats. HCHF diet feeding in rats also developed dyslipidemia, increased fat deposition and inflammation in liver compared to control rats. Cardamom powder supplementation significantly prevented the rise of lipid parameters (p > 0.05) in HCHF diet fed rats. Histological assessments confirmed that HCHF diet increased the fat deposition and inflammatory cells infiltration in liver which was normalized by cardamom powder supplementation in HCHF diet fed rats. Furthermore, HCHF diet increased lipid peroxidation, decreased antioxidant enzymes activities and increased advanced protein oxidation product level significantly (p > 0.05) both in plasma and liver tissue which were modulated by cardamom powder supplementation in HCHF diet fed rats. HCHF diet feeding in rats also increased the ALT, AST and ALP enzyme activities in plasma which were also normalized by cardamom powder supplementation in HCHF diet fed rats. Moreover, cardamom powder supplementation ameliorated the fibrosis in liver of HCHF diet fed rats.

Conclusion: This study suggests that, cardamom powder supplementation can prevent dyslipidemia, oxidative stress and hepatic damage in HCHF diet fed rats.

Keywords: Cardamom; Dyslipidemia; Fibrosis; Glucose intolerance; Inflammation; Obesity.

MeSH terms

  • Abdominal Fat / drug effects
  • Abdominal Fat / metabolism
  • Abdominal Fat / pathology
  • Alanine Transaminase / metabolism
  • Alkaline Phosphatase / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology*
  • Aspartate Aminotransferases / metabolism
  • Diet, High-Fat / adverse effects
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / adverse effects
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Dyslipidemias / diet therapy*
  • Dyslipidemias / etiology
  • Dyslipidemias / metabolism
  • Dyslipidemias / physiopathology
  • Elettaria / chemistry*
  • Glucose / metabolism
  • Glucose Intolerance
  • Glucose Tolerance Test
  • Glycation End Products, Advanced / blood
  • Lipid Peroxidation / drug effects
  • Liver Cirrhosis / etiology
  • Liver Cirrhosis / metabolism
  • Liver Cirrhosis / physiopathology
  • Liver Cirrhosis / prevention & control*
  • Male
  • Obesity / diet therapy*
  • Obesity / etiology
  • Obesity / metabolism
  • Obesity / physiopathology
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Powders
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar


  • Antioxidants
  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Glycation End Products, Advanced
  • Plant Extracts
  • Powders
  • Aspartate Aminotransferases
  • Alanine Transaminase
  • Alkaline Phosphatase
  • Glucose