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Review
, 6 (6), 2182-2217

Self-Healing in Cementitious Materials-A Review

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Review

Self-Healing in Cementitious Materials-A Review

Kim Van Tittelboom et al. Materials (Basel).

Abstract

Concrete is very sensitive to crack formation. As wide cracks endanger the durability, repair may be required. However, these repair works raise the life-cycle cost of concrete as they are labor intensive and because the structure becomes in disuse during repair. In 1994, C. Dry was the first who proposed the intentional introduction of self-healing properties in concrete. In the following years, several researchers started to investigate this topic. The goal of this review is to provide an in-depth comparison of the different self-healing approaches which are available today. Among these approaches, some are aimed at improving the natural mechanism of autogenous crack healing, while others are aimed at modifying concrete by embedding capsules with suitable healing agents so that cracks heal in a completely autonomous way after they appear. In this review, special attention is paid to the types of healing agents and capsules used. In addition, the various methodologies have been evaluated based on the trigger mechanism used and attention has been paid to the properties regained due to self-healing.

Keywords: bacteria; encapsulation; further hydration; mortar; polymers; sustainability.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Evolution of the amount of papers published on self-healing materials (redrafted after slide shown by S. White during the International Conference on Self Healing Materials 2011 in Bath).
Figure 2
Figure 2
Intrinsic self-healing approaches. Improved autogenous healing by restriction of the crack width (A); water supply (B) or improved hydration and crystallization (C).
Figure 3
Figure 3
Capsule based self-healing approaches. Leakage of healing agent from the capsules into the crack due to gravitational and capillary forces. Reaction of spherical/cylindrical encapsulated agent (dark colored inclusions) upon contact with (A,B) moisture or air or due to heating; (C,D) the cementitious matrix; (E,F) a second component present in the matrix (small, light colored inclusions) or (G,H) a second component provided by additional capsules (big, light colored inclusions).
Figure 4
Figure 4
Vascular based self-healing approaches. Leakage of healing agent from the tank via the vascular into the crack due to gravitational and capillary forces and eventual (hydrostatic) pressure. One-channel (A) and multiple channel vascular system (B).
Figure 5
Figure 5
Released volume of healing agent (Vreleased) per crack area (A) as a function of the capsule concentration for spherical and cylindrical capsules with a different length to diameter ratio. The horizontal and vertical crossing lines indicate the magnitude of the effect when changing from spheres to cylindrical capsules with a high length to diameter ratio (redrafted after [146]).

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References

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