Torrefaction of empty fruit bunches under biomass combustion gas atmosphere

Bioresour Technol. 2017 Nov;243:107-117. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2017.06.057. Epub 2017 Jun 13.


Torrefaction of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) under combustion gas atmosphere was conducted in a batch reactor at 473, 523 and 573K in order to investigate the effect of real combustion gas on torrefaction behavior. The solid mass yield of torrefaction in combustion gas was smaller than that of torrefaction in nitrogen. This may be attributed to the decomposition enhancement effect by oxygen and carbon dioxide in combustion gas. Under combustion gas atmosphere, the solid yield for torrefaction of EFB became smaller as the temperature increased. The representative products of combustion gas torrefaction were carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide (gas phase) and water, phenol and acetic acid (liquid phase). By comparing torrefaction in combustion gas with torrefaction in nitrogen gas, it was found that combustion gas can be utilized as torrefaction gas to save energy and inert gas.

Keywords: Energy yield; Lignocellulosic biomass; Liquid and gas product composition; Mass yield; Medium temperature thermochemical conversion; van Krevelen diagram.

MeSH terms

  • Atmosphere
  • Biomass*
  • Fruit*
  • Nitrogen
  • Temperature


  • Nitrogen