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. 2013 Jul 25;6(8):3108-3127.
doi: 10.3390/ma6083108.

Use of Slag/Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA) Blends in the Production of Alkali-Activated Materials

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Free PMC article

Use of Slag/Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA) Blends in the Production of Alkali-Activated Materials

Vinícius N Castaldelli et al. Materials (Basel). .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Blast furnace slag (BFS)/sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA) blends were assessed for the production of alkali-activated pastes and mortars. SCBA was collected from a lagoon in which wastes from a sugar cane industry were poured. After previous dry and grinding processes, SCBA was chemically characterized: it had a large percentage of organic matter (ca. 25%). Solutions of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate were used as activating reagents. Different BFS/SCBA mixtures were studied, replacing part of the BFS by SCBA from 0 to 40% by weight. The mechanical strength of mortar was measured, obtaining values about 60 MPa of compressive strength for BFS/SCBA systems after 270 days of curing at 20 °C. Also, microstructural properties were assessed by means of SEM, TGA, XRD, pH, electrical conductivity, FTIR spectroscopy and MIP. Results showed a good stability of matrices developed by means of alkali-activation. It was demonstrated that sugar cane bagasse ash is an interesting source for preparing alkali-activated binders.

Keywords: alkali-activation; microstructure; slag replacement; strength development; sugar cane bagasse ash; waste valorization.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Thermogravimetric (TG) and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) curves for SCBA: heating rate 20 °C/min, 70 μL alumina crucible, dried air atmosphere.
Figure 2
Figure 2
SEM micrographs: (a) BFS and (b) SCBA.
Figure 3
Figure 3
XRD diffractograms for: (a) SCBA; (b) BFS. (Key: Q: Quartz; C: Calcite).
Figure 4
Figure 4
FTIR spectra for SCBA and BFS (KBr pellets).
Figure 5
Figure 5
Compressive strength of mortars activated with different activating solutions.
Figure 6
Figure 6
Derivative thermogravimetric curves (DTG) for preliminary study on BFS pastes, after curing at 65 °C: (a) 3 days; (b) 7 days.
Figure 7
Figure 7
SEM micrographs of alkali-activated binders of BFS + SCBA cured at 65 °C for 3 days: (a) mix 100/0; (b) mix 85/15; (c) mix 75/25; (d) mix 60/40.
Figure 8
Figure 8
DTG curves for alkali activated BFS + SCBA pastes cured: (a) after 3 days at 65 °C; (b) after 7 days at 65 °C; (c) after 28 days at 25 °C; (d) after 270 days at 25 °C.
Figure 9
Figure 9
XRD diffractograms for BFS/SCBA pastes cured for 3 days at 65 °C: (a) 100/0; (b) 85/15; (c) 75/15; (d) 60/40. (Key: Q: Quartz; C: Calcite; T: Thermonatrite; H: Hydrotalcite).
Figure 10
Figure 10
XRD diffractograms for BFS/SCBA pastes cured for 270 days at 20 °C: (a) 100/0; (b) 85/15; (c) 75/15; (d) 60/40. (Key: Q: Quartz; C: Calcite; T: Thermonatrite; H: Hydrotalcite).
Figure 11
Figure 11
Evolution of the properties of alkali-activated pastes: (a) pH values; (b) electrical conductivity values.
Figure 12
Figure 12
FTIR spectra for BFS/SCBA pastes: (a) cured at 65°C for 3 days; (b) cured at 20 °C for 270 days.
Figure 13
Figure 13
Mechanical strength developments for of BFS + SCBA mortars cured at 20 °C: (a) Compressive strength; (b) Flexural strength.

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