Neutralizing Antibody Responses to Viral Infections Are Linked to the Non-classical MHC Class II Gene H2-Ob

Immunity. 2017 Aug 15;47(2):310-322.e7. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2017.07.013.


Select humans and animals control persistent viral infections via adaptive immune responses that include production of neutralizing antibodies. The precise genetic basis for the control remains enigmatic. Here, we report positional cloning of the gene responsible for production of retrovirus-neutralizing antibodies in mice of the I/LnJ strain. It encodes the beta subunit of the non-classical major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II)-like molecule H2-O, a negative regulator of antigen presentation. The recessive and functionally null I/LnJ H2-Ob allele supported the production of virus-neutralizing antibodies independently of the classical MHC haplotype. Subsequent bioinformatics and functional analyses of the human H2-Ob homolog, HLA-DOB, revealed both loss- and gain-of-function alleles, which could affect the ability of their carriers to control infections with human hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses. Thus, understanding of the previously unappreciated role of H2-O (HLA-DO) in immunity to infections may suggest new approaches in achieving neutralizing immunity to viruses.

Keywords: HLA-DO; MHC locus; antigen presentation; neutralizing antibodies; positional cloning; viral infections.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Neutralizing* / metabolism
  • Antibodies, Viral / metabolism
  • Antigen Presentation / genetics
  • Computational Biology
  • Female
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • HLA-D Antigens / genetics
  • HLA-D Antigens / metabolism*
  • HeLa Cells
  • Hepatitis B / immunology
  • Hepatitis B / transmission
  • Hepatitis C / immunology
  • Hepatitis C / transmission
  • Histocompatibility Antigens Class II / genetics
  • Histocompatibility Antigens Class II / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Humoral* / genetics
  • Male
  • Mammary Tumor Virus, Mouse / immunology*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred Strains
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Mutation / genetics
  • Polymorphism, Genetic
  • Rauscher Virus / immunology*
  • Retroviridae Infections / immunology*
  • Retroviridae Infections / transmission


  • Antibodies, Neutralizing
  • Antibodies, Viral
  • H-2O antigen
  • HLA-D Antigens
  • HLA-DO antigens
  • Histocompatibility Antigens Class II