Six adult patients had a chronic progressive myelopathy that possessed the following features: high antibody titers to human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); predominantly upper motor neuron disorder, symmetrical, with mild sensory and bladder disturbances; and presence of adult T-cell leukemia-like cells in both peripheral blood and CSF. We refer to this entity as HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM). Electrophoretic studies of immunoglobulin G in CSF using Western blot analysis characteristically demonstrated p24 and p32 bands. Rates of intra-blood-brain barrier synthesis were determined and found increased in the patients with HAM. Corticosteroid treatment produced clinical improvement in all of 4 patients. A retrospective survey of CSF samples was carried out in 287 patients with neurological disorders, and 6 additional patients with HAM were identified.