Gender disparities among patients with peripheral arterial disease treated via endovascular approach: A propensity score matched analysis

J Interv Cardiol. 2017 Dec;30(6):604-611. doi: 10.1111/joic.12431. Epub 2017 Aug 16.


Background: Remarkable improvement in the treatment of Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) has led to changes in revascularization strategies from traditional open surgery to less invasive endovascular management. However, few studies are available on gender disparities in patients with PAD treated via an endovascular approach. This study was designed to analyze gender related differences with respect to in-hospital outcomes in PAD patients.

Methods: Our data was obtained from National Inpatient Sample (NIS) 2012 through 2014. We used International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification diagnostic and procedural codes appropriate for PAD and endovascular treatment. Endovascular treatment included drug eluting stent, bare metal stent, atherectomy or angioplasty of lower extremity arteries. A propensity score matching was performed to adjust for imbalances between variables.

Results: Females presented late with more comorbidities and underwent more emergent/urgent procedures. After performing propensity score matched analysis, 25 758 patients were included in each group. There was no difference in in-hospital mortality between males and females in matched cohorts (2.3% vs 2.4%, P = 0.25). Acute renal failure, gangrene, infection, and composite of all complications were higher in males. Only blood transfusion was noted higher in females.

Conclusion: This study revealed no difference in in-hospital mortality between males and females undergoing endovascular peripheral intervention. Males have a higher rate of complications compared to females which explains the higher cost of care in males. Further research with long-term follow up is needed to see if there is any difference with regards to long-term outcomes and re-admission.

Keywords: gender disparities; in-hospital outcomes; peripheral artery disease.

MeSH terms

  • Acute Kidney Injury / epidemiology
  • Aged
  • Blood Transfusion / statistics & numerical data
  • Endovascular Procedures
  • Female
  • Gangrene / epidemiology
  • Health Surveys
  • Hospital Mortality
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Peripheral Arterial Disease / therapy*
  • Propensity Score
  • Sex Factors
  • Stents
  • United States / epidemiology