Objective: To determine the prevalence of Hispanic/Latino adults with diabetes who meet target hemoglobin A1c, blood pressure (BP), and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) recommendations, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) and statin medication use by heritage and sociodemographic and diabetes-related characteristics.
Methods: Data were cross-sectional, collected between 2008 and 2011, and included adults age 18 to 74 years who reported a physician diagnosis of diabetes in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (N = 2,148). Chi-square tests compared the prevalence of hemoglobin A1c, BP, and LDL-C targets and ACE/ARB and statin use across participant characteristics. Predictive margins regression was used to determine the prevalence adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics.
Results: The overall prevalence of A1c <7.0% (53 mmol/mol), BP <130/80 mm Hg, and LDL-C <100 mg/dL was 43.0, 48.7, and 36.6%, respectively, with 8.4% meeting all three targets. Younger adults aged 18 to 39 years with diabetes were less likely to have A1c <7.0% (53 mmol/mol) or LDL-C <100 mg/dL compared to those aged 65 to 74 years; younger adults were more likely to have BP <130/80 mm Hg (P<.05 for all). Individuals of Mexican heritage were significantly less likely to have A1c <7.0% (53 mmol/mol) compared to those with Cuban heritage, but they were more likely to have BP <130/80 mm Hg compared to those with Dominican, Cuban, or Puerto Rican heritage (P<.05 for all); there was no difference in LDL-C by heritage. Overall, 38.2% of adults with diabetes were taking a statin, and 50.5% were taking ACE/ARB medications.
Conclusion: Hemoglobin A1c, BP, and LDL-C control are suboptimal among Hispanic/Latinos with diabetes living in the U.S. With 8.4% meeting all three recommendations, substantial opportunity exists to improve diabetes control in this population.
Abbreviations: A1c = hemoglobin A1c; ABC = hemoglobin A1c, blood pressure, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol; ACE = angiotensin-converting enzyme; ADA = American Diabetes Association; ARB = angiotensin receptor blocker; BMI = body mass index; BP = blood pressure; CHD = coronary heart disease; CVD = cardiovascular disease; HCHS/SOL = Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos; LDL-C = low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol; NHANES = National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; PAD = peripheral artery disease.