Objective: The purpose of this systematic review was to update and examine to what extent multicomponent training interventions could improve lean and bone mass at different anatomical regions of the body in postmenopausal and older women.
Methods: A computerized literature search was performed in the following online databases: PubMed MEDLINE, Cochrane, and Web of Knowledge. The search was performed to include articles up until February 2017. The methodological quality of selected studies was evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias tool.
Results: Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Studies examining the effects of combined training methods in postmenopausal and older women showed contrasting results, possibly due to the wide range of the participants' age, the evaluation of different regions, and the varying characteristics of the training methods between studies. Overall, it appears that exercise modes that combine resistance, weight-bearing training, and impact-aerobic activities can increase or prevent muscle and skeletal mass loss during the ageing process in women.
Conclusions: Further studies are needed to identify the optimal multicomponent training protocols, specifically the training loads that will improve lean and bone mass at different anatomical locations, in postmenopausal and older women.