Principles for Vertical Ridge Augmentation in the Atrophic Posterior Mandible: A Technical Review

Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent. 2017 Sep/Oct;37(5):639-645. doi: 10.11607/prd.3200.


Guided bone regeneration has become more predictable due to advances in material sciences. Nevertheless, vertical ridge augmentation (VRA) remains a potential challenge due to the complexity of soft tissue management. This becomes more complicated in the posterior atrophic mandible due to limited access and poorer blood supply. As such, a number of critical elements must be taken into consideration in treatment planning. Anatomical structures potentially jeopardize intraoperative adverse events such as bleeding or neurosensory disturbances. The attachment of the mylohyoid often compromises lingual flap advancement. This technical review summarizes the critical factors to be assessed prior to VRA for the posterior mandible and provides a sequenced approach to bone grafting and to attaining a tension-free flap for successful bone regeneration and long-term peri-implant tissue stability.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Alveolar Bone Loss / pathology
  • Alveolar Bone Loss / surgery
  • Alveolar Ridge Augmentation / methods*
  • Bone Transplantation
  • Dental Implantation, Endosseous / methods
  • Humans
  • Mandible / surgery
  • Surgical Flaps / surgery