Background: Diaphanous-related formins (DRFs), actin necleator, have been known to participate in the progression of cancer cells. We previously reported that FMNL2 (Formin-like2), a member of DRFs, was a positive regulator in colorectal cancer (CRC) metastasis, yet proteins and pathways required for the function of this pro-invasive DRFs remain to be identified.
Methods: The relationship between FMNL2 and COMMD10 was examined using Co-IP, GST pull-down, immunofluorescence and in vitro ubiquitination assay. The in vitro and in vivo function of COMMD10 in CRC was evaluated using CCK-8 proliferation assay, plate colony formation, cell cycle, apoptosis and animal models. The inhibition of NF-κB signalling by COMMD10 was detected using dual-luciferase reporter assay and western blotting. Co-IP, GST pull-down and nuclear protein extraction assay were performed to evaluate the effect on p65 by COMMD10. Real-time PCR and western blotting were performed to detect expressions of FMNL2, COMMD10 and p65 in paired tissues.
Results: FMNL2 targets COMMD10 for ubiquitin-mediated proteasome degradation in CRC cells. COMMD10 targets p65 NF-κB (nuclear factor-κB) subunit and reduces its nuclear translocation, thereby leading to the inactivation of NF-κB pathway and suppression of CRC invasion and metastasis. Inhibition of NF-κB signalling by COMMD10 is necessary for FMNL2-mediated CRC cell behaviours. Downregulation of COMMD10 predicts poor prognosis of CRC patients. The expressions of FMNL2, COMMD10 and p65 are highly linked in CRC tissues.
Conclusions: These data demonstrate that the FMNL2/COMMD10/p65 axis acts as a critical regulator in the maintenance of metastatic phenotypes and is strongly associated with negative clinical outcomes.