Appreciation for genomic and immune heterogeneity in cancer has grown though the relationship of these factors to treatment response has not been thoroughly elucidated. To better understand this, we studied a large cohort of melanoma patients treated with targeted therapy or immune checkpoint blockade (n = 60). Heterogeneity in therapeutic responses via radiologic assessment was observed in the majority of patients. Synchronous melanoma metastases were analyzed via deep genomic and immune profiling, and revealed substantial genomic and immune heterogeneity in all patients studied, with considerable diversity in T cell frequency, and few shared T cell clones (<8% on average) across the cohort. Variables related to treatment response were identified via these approaches and through novel radiomic assessment. These data yield insight into differential therapeutic responses to targeted therapy and immune checkpoint blockade in melanoma, and have key translational implications in the age of precision medicine.