Kinematic and Neuromuscular Measures of Intensity During Plyometric Jumps

J Strength Cond Res. 2020 Dec;34(12):3395-3402. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000002143.

Abstract

Andrade, DC, Manzo, O, Beltrán, AR, Álvarez, C, Del Rio, R, Toledo, C, Moran, J, and Ramirez-Campillo, R. Kinematic and neuromuscular measures of intensity during plyometric jumps. J Strength Cond Res 34(12): 3395-3402, 2020-The aim of this study was to assess jumping performance and neuromuscular activity in lower limb muscles after drop jumps (DJs) from different drop heights (intensity) and during continuous jumping (fatigue), using markers such as reactive strength, jump height, mechanical power and surface electromyography (sEMG). The eccentric (EC) and concentric (CON) sEMG from the medial gastrocnemius (MG), biceps femoris (BF), and rectus (R) muscles were assessed during all tests. In a cross-sectional, randomized study, 11 volleyball players (age 24.4 ± 3.2 years) completed 20-90-cm (DJ20 to DJ90) DJs and a 60-second continuous jump test. A 1-way analysis of variance test was used for comparisons, with Sidak post hoc. The α level was <0.05. Reactive strength was greater for DJ40 compared with DJ90 (p ≤ 0.05; effect size (ES): 1.27). In addition, jump height was greater for DJ40 and DJ60 compared with DJ20 (p ≤ 0.05; ES: 1.26 and 1.27, respectively). No clear pattern of neuromuscular activity appeared during DJ20 to DJ90: some muscles showed greater, lower, or no change with increasing heights for both agonist and antagonist muscles, as well as for EC and CON activity. Mechanical power, but not reactive strength, was reduced in the 60-second jump test (p ≤ 0.05; ES: 3.46). No changes were observed in sEMG for any muscle during the EC phase nor for the R muscle during the CON phase of the 60-second jump test. However, for both MG and BF, CON sEMG was reduced during the 60-second jump test (p ≤ 0.05; ES: 5.10 and 4.61, respectively). In conclusion, jumping performance and neuromuscular markers are sensitive to DJ height (intensity), although not in a clear dose-response fashion. In addition, markers such as mechanical power and sEMG are, especially sensitive to the effects of continuous jumping (fatigue). Therefore, increasing the drop height during DJ does not ensure a greater training intensity and a combination of different drop heights may be required to elicit adaptations.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Physiological
  • Adult
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Electromyography
  • Humans
  • Lower Extremity / physiology*
  • Male
  • Muscle Fatigue / physiology
  • Muscle Strength / physiology*
  • Muscle, Skeletal / physiology*
  • Plyometric Exercise / methods*
  • Young Adult