Effects of different strength training frequencies on maximum strength, body composition and functional capacity in healthy older individuals

Exp Gerontol. 2017 Nov;98:13-21. doi: 10.1016/j.exger.2017.08.013. Epub 2017 Aug 15.

Abstract

There is controversy in the literature regarding the dose-response relationship of strength training in healthy older participants. The present study determined training frequency effects on maximum strength, muscle mass and functional capacity over 6months following an initial 3-month preparatory strength training period. One-hundred and six 64-75year old volunteers were randomly assigned to one of four groups; performing strength training one (EX1), two (EX2), or three (EX3) times per week and a non-training control (CON) group. Whole-body strength training was performed using 2-5 sets and 4-12 repetitions per exercise and 7-9 exercises per session. Before and after the intervention, maximum dynamic leg press (1-RM) and isometric knee extensor and plantarflexor strength, body composition and quadriceps cross-sectional area, as well as functional capacity (maximum 7.5m forward and backward walking speed, timed-up-and-go test, loaded 10-stair climb test) were measured. All experimental groups increased leg press 1-RM more than CON (EX1: 3±8%, EX2: 6±6%, EX3: 10±8%, CON: -3±6%, P<0.05) and EX3 improved more than EX1 (P=0.007) at month 9. Compared to CON, EX3 improved in backward walk (P=0.047) and EX1 in timed-up-and-go (P=0.029) tests. No significant changes occurred in body composition. The present study found no evidence that higher training frequency would induce greater benefit to maximum walking speed (i.e. functional capacity) despite a clear dose-response in dynamic 1-RM strength, at least when predominantly using machine weight-training. It appears that beneficial functional capacity improvements can be achieved through low frequency training (i.e. 1-2 times per week) in previously untrained healthy older participants.

Keywords: Aged men and women; Lower limbs; Muscle mass; Resistance exercise; Stair climb; Timed-up-and-go; Walking.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Body Composition*
  • Exercise Test
  • Female
  • Finland
  • Geriatric Assessment
  • Healthy Aging*
  • Humans
  • Isometric Contraction
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Muscle Strength*
  • Physical Fitness
  • Quadriceps Muscle / diagnostic imaging
  • Quadriceps Muscle / physiology*
  • Resistance Training / methods*
  • Time Factors
  • Ultrasonography