The fiber g-ratio is the ratio of the inner to the outer diameter of the myelin sheath of a myelinated axon. It has a limited dynamic range in healthy white matter, as it is optimized for speed of signal conduction, cellular energetics, and spatial constraints. In vivo imaging of the g-ratio in health and disease would greatly increase our knowledge of the nervous system and our ability to diagnose, monitor, and treat disease. MRI based g-ratio imaging was first conceived in 2011, and expanded to be feasible in full brain white matter with preliminary results in 2013. This manuscript reviews the growing g-ratio imaging literature and speculates on future applications. It details the methodology for imaging the g-ratio with MRI, and describes the known pitfalls and challenges in doing so.
Keywords: Diffusion MRI; MRI; Microstructure; Myelin imaging; White matter; g-ratio.
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