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Review
. 2018 Jan;154(2):360-373.
doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2017.08.023. Epub 2017 Aug 18.

Epidemiology of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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Free PMC article
Review

Epidemiology of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Christian C Abnet et al. Gastroenterology. .
Free PMC article

Erratum in

  • Correction.
    Gastroenterology. 2018 Oct;155(4):1281. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2018.09.048. Epub 2018 Sep 27. Gastroenterology. 2018. PMID: 30268378 No abstract available.

Abstract

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) accounts for about 90% of the 456,000 incident esophageal cancers each year. Regions of high incidence include Eastern to Central Asia, along the Rift Valley in East Africa, and into South Africa. There are many causes of ESCC, which vary among regions. Early studies in France associated smoking cigarettes and heavy alcohol consumption with high rates of ESCC, but these factors cannot explain the high incidence in other regions. We discuss other risk factors for ESCC, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from a variety of sources, high-temperature foods, diet, and oral health and the microbiome-all require further research. A growing list of defined genomic regions affects susceptibility, but large genome-wide association studies have been conducted with ethnic Chinese subjects only; more studies are called for in the rest of Asia and Africa. ESCC has been understudied, but growing infrastructure in more high-incidence countries will allow rapid progress in our understanding.

Keywords: Epidemiology; Esophageal Cancer; Genetic Epidemiology; Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Incidence rates for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in men
Figure 2
Figure 2
Esophageal cancer mortality rates in men by county in the People’s Republic of China 1973–1975. Used with permission from the National Office for Cancer Prevention and Control, National Cancer Center, Beijing, People’s Republic of China
Figure 3
Figure 3
Esophageal cancer rates by cell type and race in the United States. Blue lines indicate incidence rates for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and red lines indicate incidence rates for adenocarcinoma (adapted from).

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