The dynamics of transcription factors play important roles in a variety of biological systems. However, the mechanisms by which these dynamics are decoded into different transcriptional responses are not well understood. Here we focus on the dynamics of the tumor-suppressor protein p53, which exhibits a series of pulses in response to DNA damage. We performed time course RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) measurements to determine how p53 oscillations are linked with gene expression genome wide. We discovered multiple distinct patterns of gene expression in response to p53 pulses. Surprisingly, p53-binding dynamics were uniform across all genomic loci, even for genes that exhibited distinct mRNA dynamics. Using a mathematical model, supported by additional experimental measurements in response to sustained p53 input, we determined that p53 binds to and activates transcription of its target genes uniformly, whereas post-transcriptional mechanisms are responsible for the differences in gene expression dynamics.