Upper and lower extremity injuries are common in children, with an overall risk of fracture estimated at just under 1 in 5 children. Pediatric bone anatomy and physiology produce age specific injury patterns and conditions that are unique to children, which can make accurate diagnosis difficult for emergency clinicians. This issue reviews the etiology and pathophysiology of child-specific fractures, as well as common injuries of the upper and lower extremities. Evidence-based recommendations for management of pediatric fractures, including appropriate diagnostic studies and treatment, are also discussed.
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