Probiotics and antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children: A review and new evidence on Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG during and after antibiotic treatment

Pharmacol Res. 2018 Feb:128:63-72. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2017.08.001. Epub 2017 Aug 19.


Antibiotic associated diarrhea (AAD) is a common complication in childhood in the outpatient and inpatient settings. This review provides up to date information on the use of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of AAD, including that from Clostridium Difficile, in children. The most recently systematic reviews and subsequently published randomized controlleds trials are considered. Different single and multistrain probiotics are described; a specific recommendation for the use of Lactobacillus Rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Saccharomyces boulardii (Sb) emerges. New information on LGG survival under amoxicillin/clavulanate therapy in children is also provided. This information is relevant in view of the frequent use of this molecule in children, its association with AAD, and LGG's sensitivity to penicillin that might make this probiotic ineffective. In spite of a demonstrated positive effect of specific strains of probiotics on AAD, safety issues still remain among which the risk of associated severe infections and of antibiotic resistant gene exchange.

Keywords: Antibiotic associated diarrhea; Antibiotics; Children; Lactobacillus GG; Probiotics; Saccharomyces boulardii.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / adverse effects*
  • Child
  • Diarrhea / chemically induced
  • Diarrhea / therapy*
  • Humans
  • Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus*
  • Probiotics* / adverse effects


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents