Amyloid aggregates found in the brain of patients with neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, are thought to spread to increasingly larger areas of the brain through a prion-like seeding mechanism. Not much is known about which cell surface receptors may be involved in the cell-to-cell transfer, but proteoglycans are of interest due to their well-known propensity to interact with amyloid aggregates. In this study, we investigated the involvement of plasma membrane-bound heparan and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in cellular uptake of aggregates consisting of α-synuclein, a protein forming amyloid aggregates in Parkinson's disease. We show, using a pH-sensitive probe, that internalization of α-synuclein amyloid fibrils in neuroblastoma cells is dependent on heparan sulfate, whereas internalization of smaller non-amyloid oligomers is not. We also show that α-synuclein fibril uptake in an oligodendrocyte-like cell line is equally dependent on heparan sulfate, while astrocyte- and microglia-like cell lines have other means to internalize the fibrils. In addition, we analyzed the interaction between the α-synuclein amyloid fibrils and heparan sulfate and show that overall sulfation of the heparan sulfate chains is more important than sulfation at particular sites along the chains.