Copaiba oil is used as a popular medicine in the Amazonian forest region, especially due to its anti-inflammatory properties. In this paper, we describe the formulation of hydrogel containing copaiba oil nanoemulsions (with positive and negative charges), its skin permeation, and its anti-inflammatory activity in two in vivo models: mouse ear edema and rat paw edema. Three hydrogels were tested (Carbopol®, hydroxyethylcellulose and chitosan), but only Carbopol® and hydroxyethylcellulose hydrogels presented good stability and did not interfere with the nanoemulsions droplet size and polydispersity index. In skin permeation assay, both formulations, positively charged nanoemulsion (PCN) and negatively charged nanoemulsion (NCN), presented a high retention in epidermis (9.76 ± 2.65 μg/g and 7.91 ± 2.46 μg/cm2, respectively) followed by a smaller retention in the dermis (2.43 ± 0.91 and 1.95 ± 0.56 μg/cm2, respectively). They also presented permeation to the receptor fluid (0.67 ± 0.22 and 1.80 ± 0.85 μg/cm2, respectively). In addition, anti-inflammatory effect was observed to NCN and PCN with edema inhibitions of 69 and 67% in mouse ear edema and 32 and 72% in rat paw edema, respectively. Histological cuts showed the decrease of inflammatory factors, such as dermis and epidermis hyperplasia and inflammatory cells infiltration, confirming the anti-inflammatory effect from both copaiba oil nanoemulsions incorporated in hydrogel.
Keywords: Copaifera multijuga Hayne; hydrogel; inflammation; mouse ear edema; rat paw edema.