Chronic Latent Magnesium Deficiency in Obesity Decreases Positive Effects of Vitamin D on Cardiometabolic Risk Indicators

Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2018;16(6):610-617. doi: 10.2174/1570161115666170821154841.

Abstract

Background: Obesity and micronutrient deficiencies contribute to the risk of cardiometabolic diseases such are type 2 diabetes mellitus and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD).

Objective: We examined the frequency of concomitant deficit of Magnesium (Mg) and vitamin D in obese patients and evaluated the connection of these combined deficiencies with indicators of cardiometabolic risk in non-diabetic subjects.

Methods: Non-diabetic middle aged adults (n = 80; mean age 36 ± 4 years, 52% women) were recruited based on weight/adiposity parameters [i.e. Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage (FAT%)]. Cardiometabolic risk indicators [insulin resistance (Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR)) and CVD risk (Framingham risk score for predicting 10-year CVD)], Mg status (i.e. total serum Mg concentration (TMg), Chronic Latent Mg Deficiency (CLMD) - 0.75-0.85 mmol/L), vitamin D status (i.e. serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), vitamin D deficiency <50 nmol/l) were assessed.

Results: Among obese subjects 36% presented a combination of vitamin D deficiency and CLMD. In all studied patients, 25(OH)D and TMg levels both, individually and combined, showed a negative linear correlation with HOMA-IR and CVD risk. In subjects with CLMD (TMg <0.85 mmol/L), a negative linear coefficient was found between 25(OH)D and, HOMA-IR and CVD risk, compared with subjects with normal TMg status (TMg ≥0.85 mmol/L).

Conclusion: CLMD and vitamin D deficiency may commonly be present in obese non-diabetic subjects. Individually and combined, both deficiencies predispose non-diabetic patients to increased risk of cardiometabolic diseases. Maintaining normal Mg status may improve the beneficial effects of vitamin D on cardiometabolic risk indicators.

Keywords: Obesity; cardiometabolic risk indicators; chronic latent magnesium deficiency; insulin resistance; micronutrients; vitamin D deficiency..

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Chronic Disease
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Magnesium Deficiency / blood
  • Magnesium Deficiency / complications*
  • Magnesium Deficiency / diagnosis
  • Male
  • Metabolic Syndrome / blood
  • Metabolic Syndrome / diagnosis
  • Metabolic Syndrome / etiology*
  • Obesity / blood
  • Obesity / complications*
  • Obesity / diagnosis
  • Prognosis
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Vitamin D / analogs & derivatives*
  • Vitamin D / blood
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / blood
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / complications*
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / diagnosis

Substances

  • Biomarkers
  • Vitamin D
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D