Macrophage repolarization using emu oil-based electrospun nanofibers: possible application in regenerative medicine

Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol. 2018 Sep;46(6):1258-1265. doi: 10.1080/21691401.2017.1367689. Epub 2017 Aug 23.


In the regenerative medicine therapies, the availability of engineered scaffolds that modulate inflammatory states is highly required. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds containing natural substances with anti-inflammatory properties such as Emu oil (EO) to control inflammation and re-polarization of macrophages toward M2 anti-inflammatory phonotype. For this purpose, bead free and smooth EO-blended PCL/PEG electrospun nanofibrous mats were successfully fabricated and characterized using FE-SEM, FTIR, and Universal Testing Machine. GC/MS findings of pure EO revealed the fatty acids composition. MTT results showed that macrophage viability on EO-PCL/PEG nanofibres was higher than on PCL/PEG nanofibres and control (p ≤ .05). Additionally, the presence of EO into nanofibres was found to influence on macrophage morphologies, using FE-SEM. qPCR results showed a reduction in iNOS-2 and an increase in Arg-1 levels of macrophages seeded on EO-PCL/PEG nanofibres, indicating the successfully polarization of the macrophages to M2 phenotype. The change in macrophage phenotype on EO-based nanofibres could suppress the inflammation in LPS/IFN-γ stimulated macrophages as evidenced by a major reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6. Conclusively, the results demonstrated that EO-based nanofibres efficiently modulated RAW264.7 macrophage polarity toward an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype.

Keywords: Emu oil; macrophage polarity; nanofibre; regenerative medicine.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology
  • Cell Survival / drug effects
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Drug Compounding / methods*
  • Macrophages / cytology
  • Macrophages / drug effects*
  • Macrophages / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Nanofibers / chemistry*
  • Nanofibers / ultrastructure
  • Oils / chemistry*
  • Oils / pharmacology
  • Polyesters / chemistry*
  • Polyethylene Glycols / chemistry*
  • RAW 264.7 Cells
  • Regenerative Medicine / methods


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Cytokines
  • Oils
  • Polyesters
  • polycaprolactone
  • emu Oil
  • Polyethylene Glycols