A novel fluorescent imaging technique for assessment of cerebral vasospasm after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage

Sci Rep. 2017 Aug 22;7(1):9126. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-09070-y.


Various techniques have been developed to study changes in the cerebral vasculature in numerous neuropathological processes including subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). One of the most widely employed techniques uses India ink-gelatin casting, which presents numerous challenges due to its high viscosity, rapid solidification, and its impact on immunohistochemical analysis. To overcome these limitations, we developed a novel technique for assessing cerebral vasospasm using cerebrovascular perfusion with ROX, SE (5-Carboxy-X-Rhodamine, Succinimidyl Ester), a fluorescent labeling dye. We found that ROX SE perfusion achieves excellent delineation of the cerebral vasculature, was qualitatively and quantitatively superior to India ink-gelatin casting for the assessment of cerebral vasospasm, permits outstanding immunohistochemical examination of non-vasospasm components of secondary brain injury, and is a more efficient and cost-effective experimental technique. ROX SE perfusion is therefore a novel and highly useful technique for studying cerebrovascular pathology following experimental SAH.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biomarkers
  • Blood-Brain Barrier / metabolism
  • Costs and Cost Analysis
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Observer Variation
  • Optical Imaging* / economics
  • Optical Imaging* / methods
  • Staining and Labeling
  • Subarachnoid Hemorrhage / complications*
  • Subarachnoid Hemorrhage / physiopathology*
  • Vasospasm, Intracranial / diagnosis*
  • Vasospasm, Intracranial / etiology*


  • Biomarkers