Association of Fluid Administration With Morbidity in Cytoreductive Surgery With Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy

JAMA Surg. 2017 Dec 1;152(12):1156-1160. doi: 10.1001/jamasurg.2017.2865.


Importance: Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) for peritoneal cancers can be associated with significant complications. Randomized trials have demonstrated increased morbidity with liberal fluid regimens in abdominal surgery.

Objective: To investigate the association of intraoperative fluid administration and morbidity in patients undergoing CRS/HIPEC.

Design, setting, and participants: A retrospective analysis of information from a prospectively collected institutional database was conducted at a National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center. A total of 133 patients from April 15, 2009, to June 23, 2016, with primary or secondary peritoneal cancers were included.

Exposures: Cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy.

Main outcomes and measures: Morbidity associated with intraoperative fluid management calculated by the comprehensive complication index, which uses a formula combining all perioperative complications and their severities into a continuous variable from 0 to 100 in each patient.

Results: Of the 133 patients identified, 38% and 37% had diagnoses of metastatic appendiceal and colorectal cancers, respectively. Mean age was 54 (interquartile range [IQR], 47-64) years, and mean peritoneal cancer index was 13 (IQR, 7-18). Mitomycin and platinum-based chemotherapeutic agents were used in 96 (72.2%) and 37 (27.8%) of the patients, respectively. Mean intraoperative fluid (IOF) rate was 15.7 (IQR, 11.3-18.7) mL/kg/h. Mean comprehensive complication index (CCI) was 26.0 (IQR, 8.7-36.2). On multivariate analysis, age (coefficient, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.01-0.64; P = .04), IOF rate (coefficient, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.19-1.75; P = .02), and estimated blood loss (coefficient, 0.02; 95% CI, 0.01-0.03; P = .002) were independent predictors of increased CCI. In particular, patients who received greater than the mean IOF rate experienced a 43% increase in the CCI compared with patients who received less than the mean IOF rate (31.5 vs 22.0; P = .02).

Conclusions and relevance: Intraoperative fluid administration is associated with a significant increase in perioperative morbidity in patients undergoing CRS/HIPEC. Fluid administration protocols that include standardized restrictive fluid rates can potentially help to mitigate morbidity in patients undergoing CRS/HIPEC.

MeSH terms

  • Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Cytoreduction Surgical Procedures*
  • Female
  • Fluid Therapy / adverse effects*
  • Humans
  • Hyperthermia, Induced*
  • Intraoperative Care
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Peritoneal Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Postoperative Complications / epidemiology*
  • Retrospective Studies


  • Antineoplastic Agents