An Objective Measure of Splitting in Parental Alienation: The Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire

J Forensic Sci. 2018 May;63(3):776-783. doi: 10.1111/1556-4029.13625. Epub 2017 Aug 17.

Abstract

Both clinicians and forensic practitioners should distinguish parental alienation (rejection of a parent without legitimate justification) from other reasons for contact refusal. Alienated children-who were not abused-often engage in splitting and lack ambivalence with respect to the rejected parent; children who were maltreated usually perceive the abusive parent in an ambivalent manner. The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of the Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire (PARQ) in identifying and quantifying the degree of splitting, which may assist in diagnosing parental alienation. Results showed that severely alienated children engaged in a high level of splitting, by perceiving the preferred parent in extremely positive terms and the rejected parent in extremely negative terms. Splitting was not manifested by the children in other family groups. The PARQ may be useful for both clinicians and forensic practitioners in evaluating children of divorced parents when there is a concern about the possible diagnosis of parental alienation.

Keywords: child psychiatry; children of divorce; forensic science; parental acceptance-rejection questionnaire; parental alienation; splitting.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Child
  • Child Abuse
  • Divorce
  • Family Conflict
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Parent-Child Relations*
  • Rejection, Psychology*
  • Social Alienation*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires*