Background: N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) was proposed as an adjuvant to clomiphene citrate for ovulation induction in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) without clomiphene citrate resistance.
Objective: To evaluate the effect of NAC on pregnancy rate in PCOS patients who were candidates for intrauterine insemination.
Materials and methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 97 PCOS women aged 18-38 years were enrolled in two groups, randomly. For the case group (n=49), NAC (1.2 gr)+ clomiphene citrate (100 mg) + letrozole (5mg) were prescribed daily from the third day of menstruation cycle for five days. The control group (n=48) had the same drug regimen without NAC. In order to follicular development, recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone (r-hFSH; Gonal-F®) was injected on days of 7-11 menstrual cycles in all participants. When the follicle size was 18mm or more, 10000 IU human chorionic gonadotropin was injected intramuscular and the intrauterine insemination was performed after 34-36 hr.
Results: There were not significant differences between study groups regarding mean endometrial thickness (p=0.14), the mean number of mature follicles (p=0.20), and the pregnancy rate (p=0.09).
Conclusion: NAC is ineffective in inducing or augmenting ovulation in PCOS patients who were candidates for intrauterine insemination and cannot be recommended as an adjuvant to CC in such patients.
Keywords: Intrauterine insemination; N-acetyl cysteine; Ovulation induction; Polycystic ovary syndrome.