Do the expressions of epithelial-mesenchymal transition proteins, periostin, integrin-α4 and fibronectin correlate with clinico-pathological features and prognosis of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer?

Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2017 Dec;242(18):1795-1801. doi: 10.1177/1535370217728499. Epub 2017 Aug 24.

Abstract

Development of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer is a result of the lack of an apoptotic response by the tumor cells and loss of the ability to stick to adjacent cells through epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Although there are several strongly recommended biomarkers for determining prognosis of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, only few of them may help decide the selection of the optimal treatment option. The mode of treatment sequencing in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer will be based on the individual characteristics of the patient. In this study, we aimed to explain the correlation between the expression characteristics of periostin, integrin-α4, and fibronectin in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients and their clinico-pathological data comprising Gleason score, PSA levels, and metastatic sites in the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. We evaluated by using Western blotting, periostin, integrin-α4, and fibronectin expressions in peripheral blood samples of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients ( n = 40), benign prostatic hyperplasia patients ( n = 20), and the healthy control group ( n = 20). Associations between changes in the protein expressions and clinico-pathological parameters were also analyzed in the metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer group. When comparing BPH and healthy groups with the metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer group, a reduced expression of integrin-α4 was found in metastatic patients, albeit being statistically insignificant ( P > 0.05). Protein expressions of periostin and fibronectin in the metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer group were higher than those in the BPH and heathy groups ( P < 0.001). Increased periostin expression in metastatic patients was significantly associated with bone metastasis ( P < 0.05). Elevated periostin and fibronectin levels in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients may be appropriate targets of therapeutic intervention in the future. Impact statement Prostate cancer is the third most common cancer in the world and the most common cancer among men. Development of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is a result of the lack of an apoptotic response by the tumor cells and loss of the ability to stick to adjacent cells through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The present study analyzes for the first time the expressions of EMT marker proteins - periostin, integrin α4, fibronectin - in mCRPC and in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with the aim to determine the clinical relevance of changes in these three proteins vis-a-vis the PCa aggressive phenotype. In doing so, it sheds light on the molecular mechanism underlying the disease. We concluded that elevated periostin and fibronectin levels in mCRPC patients may be appropriate targets of therapeutic intervention in the future; hence, adopting methods that target these proteins may help treat prostate cancer effectively.

Keywords: Epithelial–mesenchymal transition; fibronectin; gene expression; integrin α4; metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer; periostin.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Bone Neoplasms / genetics
  • Bone Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition / physiology*
  • Fibronectins / metabolism*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic*
  • Humans
  • Integrin alpha4 / metabolism*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant / genetics
  • Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant / metabolism*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant / therapy

Substances

  • Fibronectins
  • Integrin alpha4