Crohn's Disease: Genetics Update

Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2017 Sep;46(3):449-461. doi: 10.1016/j.gtc.2017.05.002. Epub 2017 Jul 19.


Since the discovery of the first Crohn's disease (CD) gene NOD2 in 2001, 140 genetic loci have been found in whites using high-throughput genome-wide association studies. Several genes influence the CD subphenotypes and treatment response. With the observations of increasing prevalence in Asia and developing countries and the incomplete explanation of CD variance, other underexplored areas need to be integrated through novel methodologies. Algorithms that incorporate specific genetic risk alleles with other biomarkers will be developed and used to predict CD disease course, complications, and response to specific therapies, allowing precision medicine to become real in CD.

Keywords: Behavior; Crohn's disease; GWAS; Genetic score; Genetics; NOD2; Phenotypes; TNF.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Alleles
  • Asian People / genetics
  • Crohn Disease / genetics*
  • Crohn Disease / pathology
  • Crohn Disease / therapy
  • Digestive System Surgical Procedures
  • Gene-Environment Interaction
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Genome-Wide Association Study
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Nod2 Signaling Adaptor Protein / genetics
  • Phenotype
  • Prognosis
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / antagonists & inhibitors
  • White People / genetics


  • NOD2 protein, human
  • Nod2 Signaling Adaptor Protein
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha