The human intestinal tract contains trillions of bacteria, collectively called the gut microbiota. Recent insights have linked the gut microbiota to a plethora of diseases, including Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and metabolic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is currently tested as a therapeutic option in various diseases and can also help to dissect association from causality with respect to gut microbiota and disease. In CDI, FMT has been shown to be superior to antibiotic treatment. For IBD, T2D, and NASH, several placebo-controlled randomized controlled trials are under way. Moreover, techniques and standardization are developing. With the extension of FMT as a treatment modality in diseases other than CDI, a whole new treatment option may be emerging. Moreover, correlating alterations in specific strains to disease outcome may prove pivotal in finding new bacterial targets. Thus, although causality of the gut microbiota in various diseases still needs to be proven, FMT may prove to be a powerful tool providing us with diagnostic and therapeutic leads.