Early diagnosis of PI3Kδ syndrome in a 2 years old girl with recurrent otitis and enlarged spleen

Immunol Lett. 2017 Oct:190:279-281. doi: 10.1016/j.imlet.2017.08.021. Epub 2017 Aug 31.

Abstract

Heterozygous gain of function mutations in the gene encoding p110δ subunit of PI3K have been recently associated with activated PI3K-δ syndrome (APDS), a novel combined immune deficiency characterized by recurrent sinopulmonary infections, lymphopenia, reduced class-switched memory B cells, lymphadenopathy, CMV and/or EBV viremia and EBV-related lymphoma. Here we report a dominant gain of function PIK3CD mutation (E1021K) in a patient presenting with recurrent otitis media, massive splenomegaly, and persistent EBV-viraemia. The immunological studies showed low IgA level, but normal IgM, IgG, and normal antibody response to diphtheria and tetanus toxoid vaccination. Analysis of B lymphocyte subsets revealed abnormal expansion of transitional B cells, and low percentage of switched CD27+IgD- and CD27+IgD+ memory B cells. Analysis of T cell compartment unveiled prevalence of terminally differentiated cells. This study suggests that PIK3CD gain of function mutations should be suspected despite incomplete phenotype in patients with early onset splenomegaly, persistent EBV viremia and abnormal B and T cell subsets despite normal IgG levels. Currently the optimal treatment is still debated, but prompt management can hopefully diminish incidence of severe long-lasting sequelae (i.e. bronchiectasis, ear and sinus damage).

Keywords: Hypogammaglobulinemia; Lymphopenia; Lymphoproliferation; PI3Kδ syndrome; Perisistant EBV viremia.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • B-Lymphocyte Subsets / immunology*
  • Child, Preschool
  • Class I Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / genetics
  • Early Diagnosis
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes / diagnosis*
  • Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes / drug therapy
  • Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes / genetics
  • Lymphopenia / diagnosis*
  • Mutation / genetics
  • Otitis / diagnosis*
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / genetics*
  • Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases
  • Respiratory Tract Infections / diagnosis*
  • Sirolimus / therapeutic use
  • Spleen / pathology*
  • Splenomegaly / diagnosis*
  • T-Lymphocyte Subsets / immunology*

Substances

  • Class I Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases
  • Sirolimus

Supplementary concepts

  • Activated PI3K-delta Syndrome