Islet β-cell dysfunction and aggressive macrophage activity are early features in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). 12/15-Lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) is induced in β-cells and macrophages during T1D and produces proinflammatory lipids and lipid peroxides that exacerbate β-cell dysfunction and macrophage activity. Inhibition of 12/15-LOX provides a potential therapeutic approach to prevent glycemic deterioration in T1D. Two inhibitors recently identified by our groups through screening efforts, ML127 and ML351, have been shown to selectively target 12/15-LOX with high potency. Only ML351 exhibited no apparent toxicity across a range of concentrations in mouse islets, and molecular modeling has suggested reduced promiscuity of ML351 compared with ML127. In mouse islets, incubation with ML351 improved glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in the presence of proinflammatory cytokines and triggered gene expression pathways responsive to oxidative stress and cell death. Consistent with a role for 12/15-LOX in promoting oxidative stress, its chemical inhibition reduced production of reactive oxygen species in both mouse and human islets in vitro. In a streptozotocin-induced model of T1D in mice, ML351 prevented the development of diabetes, with coincident enhancement of nuclear Nrf2 in islet cells, reduced β-cell oxidative stress, and preservation of β-cell mass. In the nonobese diabetic mouse model of T1D, administration of ML351 during the prediabetic phase prevented dysglycemia, reduced β-cell oxidative stress, and increased the proportion of anti-inflammatory macrophages in insulitis. The data provide the first evidence to date that small molecules that target 12/15-LOX can prevent progression of β-cell dysfunction and glycemic deterioration in models of T1D.
© 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.