The volatile constituents of the fruiting bodies of 4 culinary-medicinal mushroom species (Agaricus bisporus, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius, and Hericium erinaceus) from Hungary were examined to review their aroma composition. Simultaneous distillation/extraction was applied to extract volatile compounds from fungi, and the values were measured with gas chromatography--mass spectrometry. Although the fragrances of fungi are not as characteristic as those of spices, several groups of volatile compounds have been found in mushrooms. The number of identified components ranged between 61 and 100, with a high ratio of 8-carbon volatiles generally occurring in fungi. Beyond common properties, individual attributes have been identified as well: an outstanding ratio of benzene compounds in champignons, numerous N-containing volatiles in boletes, carotenoid degradation products in chanterelles, and esters and fatty acids with a high carbon number in the lion's mane mushroom. The identification of these characteristic fragrance constituents can be very important in differentiating between species and confirming their presence in mushroom products.