Beta-blockers antagonize beta-adrenergic receptors and are used mainly in the treatment of hypertension, heart failure, tachydysrhythmias, and angina pectoris. In addition to cardiovascular disorders, beta-blockers are also used in the management of anxiety, migraine headache, glaucoma, tremor, hyperthyroidism, and various other disorders. Propranolol is one of the earliest beta-blockers manufactured and has been in the United States since 1973. The development of beta-blockers has revolutionized the management of cardiovascular disorders and is known to provide morbidity and mortality benefits to patients with ischemic heart diseases. Beta-blockers prevent remodeling of the heart after an ischemic event by reducing the effects of catecholamines on cardiac tissue. They are recommended for the treatment of congestive heart failure by the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force.
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