Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara-based vaccines in the era of personalized immunotherapy of cancer

Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2017 Sep 2;13(9):1997-2003. doi: 10.1080/21645515.2017.1334746. Epub 2017 Aug 28.


While interest in immunotherapies is renewed by the successful introduction of immune checkpoint blocking agent in the clinic, advances in genome sequencing are opening new possibilities in the design of increasingly personalized vaccines. Personalization of medicine can now be realistically contemplated at the single patient level. Unlike the previous generation of cancer vaccines, neoantigen directed vaccines would target truly specific tumor antigens resulting from acquired tumor genome mutations. Immune response induced by this next generation vaccine would not be subject to self-tolerance and will likely result to enhanced efficacy. Nevertheless, this new technologies can hold to their promises only if sponsors manage to meet several scientific, technical, logistical and regulatory challenges. In particular manufacturers will have to design, manufacture, and deliver to the patient a new pharmaceutical grade in a matters of weeks. In this paper, we briefly review current technologies currently tried at the translation of personalized vaccines and explore the possibilities offered by the Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara in this next wave of cancer vaccines.

Keywords: Personalized vaccines; cancer immunotherapy; neoantigens.

MeSH terms

  • Cancer Vaccines* / adverse effects
  • Cancer Vaccines* / immunology
  • Humans
  • Immunotherapy / adverse effects
  • Immunotherapy / methods*
  • Neoplasms / immunology
  • Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Precision Medicine
  • Vaccines, Synthetic
  • Vaccinia virus / genetics
  • Vaccinia virus / immunology*


  • Cancer Vaccines
  • Vaccines, Synthetic