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Clinical Trial
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Effects of Simulated Human Gastrointestinal Digestion of Two Purple-Fleshed Potato Cultivars on Anthocyanin Composition and Cytotoxicity in Colonic Cancer and Non-Tumorigenic Cells

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Clinical Trial

Effects of Simulated Human Gastrointestinal Digestion of Two Purple-Fleshed Potato Cultivars on Anthocyanin Composition and Cytotoxicity in Colonic Cancer and Non-Tumorigenic Cells

Stan Kubow et al. Nutrients.

Abstract

A dynamic human gastrointestinal (GI) model was used to digest cooked tubers from purple-fleshed Amachi and Leona potato cultivars to study anthocyanin biotransformation in the stomach, small intestine and colonic vessels. Colonic Caco-2 cancer cells and non-tumorigenic colonic CCD-112CoN cells were tested for cytotoxicity and cell viability after 24 h exposure to colonic fecal water (FW) digests (0%, 10%, 25%, 75% and 100% FW in culture media). After 24 h digestion, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry identified 36 and 15 anthocyanin species throughout the GI vessels for Amachi and Leona, respectively. The total anthocyanin concentration was over thirty-fold higher in Amachi compared to Leona digests but seven-fold higher anthocyanin concentrations were noted for Leona versus Amachi in descending colon digests. Leona FW showed greater potency to induce cytotoxicity and decrease viability of Caco-2 cells than observed with FW from Amachi. Amachi FW at 100% caused cytotoxicity in non-tumorigenic cells while FW from Leona showed no effect. The present findings indicate major variations in the pattern of anthocyanin breakdown and release during digestion of purple-fleshed cultivars. The differing microbial anthocyanin metabolite profiles in colonic vessels between cultivars could play a significant role in the impact of FW toxicity on tumor and non-tumorigenic cells.

Keywords: anthocyanins; antioxidant; biotransformation; cancer cells; cytotoxicity; human gastrointestinal model; purple-fleshed potato.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
The purple-fleshed potato cultivars Amachi and Leona.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Time course of antioxidant capacity ferric reducing antioxidant power measures of digesta from gut model vessels following provision of a meal containing cvs. Amachi (A) and Leona (B) potato meals.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Effect of in vitro digests of cvs. Amachi (A) and Leona (B) on LDH production by Caco-2 and CCD-112CoN cells. Values are means ± SE of four independent experiments. Statistical analysis was performed via two-way ANOVA using cell line (Caco-2 versus CCD-112CoN) and dose (0%, 10%, 25%, 75% and 100%) as factors. Within each cell line, mean LDH values without a common letter are significantly different (p < 0.05). Between cell lines and within each dose, the symbol * represents a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the comparison between Caco-2 and CCD112-CoN cells at a specific digest dose.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Effect of in vitro digests of cvs. Amachi (A) and Leona (B) on LDH production by Caco-2 and CCD-112CoN cells. Values are means ± SE of four independent experiments. Statistical analysis was performed via two-way ANOVA using cell line (Caco-2 versus CCD-112CoN) and dose (0%, 10%, 25%, 75% and 100%) as factors. Within each cell line, mean LDH values without a common letter are significantly different (p < 0.05). Between cell lines and within each dose, the symbol * represents a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the comparison between Caco-2 and CCD112-CoN cells at a specific digest dose.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Effect of in vitro digests of cvs. Amachi and Leona on the viability of Caco-2 cells as assessed via the the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Values are means ± SE of four independent experiments. Means within cultivar treatment without a common letter are significantly different (p < 0.05). The symbol * represents the comparison between cvs. Amachi and Leona at a specific digest dose as significantly different (p < 0.05).

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