Three-Dimensional Virtual Sonographic Cystoscopy for Detection of Ureterocele in Duplicated Collecting Systems in Children

J Ultrasound Med. 2018 Mar;37(3):595-600. doi: 10.1002/jum.14373. Epub 2017 Aug 29.


Objectives: Ureterocele is a sac-like dilatation of terminal ureter. Precise anatomic delineation is of utmost importance to proceed with the surgical plan, particularly in the ectopic subtype. However, the level of ureterocele extension is not always elucidated by the existing imaging modalities and even by conventional cystoscopy, which is considered as the gold standard for evaluation of ureterocele. This study aims to evaluate the accuracy of three-dimensional virtual sonographic cystoscopy (VSC) in the characterization of ureterocele in duplex collecting systems.

Methods: Sixteen children with a mean age of 5.1 (standard deviation 1.96) years with transabdominal ultrasonography-proven duplex system and ureterocele were included. They underwent VSC by a single pediatric radiologist. All of them subsequently had conventional cystoscopy, and the results were compared in terms of ureterocele features including anatomy, number, size, location, and extension.

Results: Three-dimensional VSC was well tolerated in all cases without any complication. Image quality was suboptimal in 2 of 16 patients. Out of the remaining 14 cases, VSC had a high accuracy in characterization of the ureterocele features (93%). Only the extension of one ureterocele was not precisely detected by VSC.

Conclusions: The results of this study suggest three-dimensional sonography as a promising noninvasive diagnostic modality in the evaluation of ectopic ureterocele in children.

Keywords: -three-dimensional; 3D ultrasound; ultrasonography; ureterocele; urology; virtual cystoscopy.

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cystoscopy / methods*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods*
  • Male
  • Ultrasonography / methods*
  • Ureter / diagnostic imaging
  • Ureterocele / diagnostic imaging*