Type 2 immunity is characterized by the production of IL-4, IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13, and this immune response is commonly observed in tissues during allergic inflammation or infection with helminth parasites. However, many of the key cell types associated with type 2 immune responses - including T helper 2 cells, eosinophils, mast cells, basophils, type 2 innate lymphoid cells and IL-4- and IL-13-activated macrophages - also regulate tissue repair following injury. Indeed, these cell populations engage in crucial protective activity by reducing tissue inflammation and activating important tissue-regenerative mechanisms. Nevertheless, when type 2 cytokine-mediated repair processes become chronic, over-exuberant or dysregulated, they can also contribute to the development of pathological fibrosis in many different organ systems. In this Review, we discuss the mechanisms by which type 2 immunity contributes to tissue regeneration and fibrosis following injury.