Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
, 20 (2), 100-104

Remineralization Ability of Sodium Fluoride on the Microhardness of Enamel, Dentin, and Dentinoenamel Junction: An in vitro Study


Remineralization Ability of Sodium Fluoride on the Microhardness of Enamel, Dentin, and Dentinoenamel Junction: An in vitro Study

Elangovan Sivapriya et al. J Conserv Dent.


Aim: Dental tissues such as enamel, dentinoenamel junction (DEJ), dentin, and root dentin can react differently to demineralization and remineralization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the remineralization ability of sodium fluoride on the microhardness of enamel, dentin, and dentinoenamel junction.

Materials and methods: Ten extracted third molar teeth were sectioned mesiodistally to form control and test groups. For the test group, initial demineralization was done with acetic acid for 24 h followed by remineralization for 28 days by application of sodium fluoride (226 ppm) for 2 min twice a day. Vickers microhardness test was done to control and test groups at different sites after initial demineralization and on the 3rd, 5th, 7th, 14th, and 28th day of remineralization.

Statistical analysis used: Data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance and post hoc test with a significance level of P < 0.001 with SPSS (21) software.

Results: Microhardness values in the demineralization group were significantly lower than controls (P < 0.001). Evaluation of remineralization samples showed that microhardness similar to control values were achieved at the 3rd day in root predentin and on the 5th day in coronal dentin and coronal predentin. On the 7th day, remineralization coronal predentin was significantly higher than the control (P < 0.001). On the 14th day, DEJ axial zone and root dentin were similar to control and coronal dentin was significantly higher than the control (P < 0.001). Enamel was similar to control on the 28th day. Microhardness of DEJ-cusp tip and DEJ-center of the fissure was significantly lower than control even at the 28th day (P < 0.001).

Conclusion: Long-term repeated application of sodium fluoride (226 ppm) can improve the microhardness of demineralized dental tissues on enamel, dentin, and DEJ-axial zone, except in the DEJ-cusp tip and DEJ-center of fissure.

Keywords: Dentinoenamel junction; microhardness; remineralization; sodium fluoride.

Conflict of interest statement

There are no conflicts of interest.


Figure 1
Figure 1
Tooth section showing the indentation sites

Similar articles

See all similar articles


    1. White SN, Miklus VG, Chang PP, Caputo AA, Fong H, Sarikaya M, et al. Controlled failure mechanisms toughen the dentino-enamel junction zone. J Prosthet Dent. 2005;94:330–5. - PubMed
    1. Rasmussen ST, Patchin RE. Fracture properties of human enamel and dentin in an aqueous environment. J Dent Res. 1984;63:1362–8. - PubMed
    1. Braly A, Darnell LA, Mann AB, Teaford MF, Weihs TP. The effect of prism orientation on the indentation testing of human molar enamel. Arch Oral Biol. 2007;52:856–60. - PMC - PubMed
    1. Lin CP, Douglas WH. Structure-property relations and crack resistance at the bovine dentin-enamel junction. J Dent Res. 1994;73:1072–8. - PubMed
    1. Xu C, Yao X, Walker MP, Wang Y. Chemical/molecular structure of the dentin-enamel junction is dependent on the intratooth location. Calcif Tissue Int. 2009;84:221–8. - PMC - PubMed