Identifying missing proteins (MPs) has been one of the critical missions of the Chromosome-Centric Human Proteome Project (C-HPP). Since 2012, over 30 research teams from 17 countries have been trying to search adequate and accurate evidence of MPs through various biochemical strategies. MPs mainly fall into the following classes: (1) low-molecular-weight (LMW) proteins, (2) membrane proteins, (3) proteins that contained various post-translational modifications (PTMs), (4) nucleic acid-associated proteins, (5) low abundance, and (6) unexpressed genes. In this study, kidney cancer and adjacent tissues were used for phosphoproteomics research, and 8962 proteins were identified, including 6415 phosphoproteins, and 44 728 phosphosites, of which 10 266 were unreported previously. In total, 75 candidate detections were found, including 45 phoshoproteins. GO analysis for these 75 candidate detections revealed that these proteins mainly clustered as membrane proteins and took part in nephron and kidney development. After rigorous screening and manual check, 9 of them were verified with the synthesized peptides. Finally, only one missing protein was confirmed. All mass spectrometry data from this study have been deposited in the PRIDE with identifier PXD006482.
Keywords: Chromosome-Centric Human Proteome Project; LTQ Orbitrap Velos; kidney cancer; missing proteins; phosphoproteomics.