Pelvic venous reflux in males with varicose veins and recurrent varicose veins

Phlebology. 2018 Jul;33(6):382-387. doi: 10.1177/0268355517728667. Epub 2017 Aug 31.


Objectives To report on a male cohort with pelvic vein reflux and associated primary and recurrent lower limb varicose veins. Methods Full lower limb duplex ultrasonography revealed significant pelvic contribution in eight males presenting with bilateral lower limb varicose veins. Testicular and internal iliac veins were examined with either one or a combination of computed tomography, magnetic resonance venography, testicular, transabdominal or transrectal duplex ultrasonography. Subsequently, all patients received pelvic vein embolisation, prior to leg varicose vein treatment. Results Pelvic vein reflux was found in 23 of the 32 truncal pelvic veins and these were treated by pelvic vein embolisation. Four patients have since completed their leg varicose vein treatment and four are undergoing leg varicose vein treatments currently. Conclusion Pelvic vein reflux contributes towards lower limb venous insufficiency in some males with leg varicose veins. Despite the challenges, we suggest that pelvic vein reflux should probably be investigated and pelvic vein embolisation considered in such patients.

Keywords: Duplex ultrasonography; pelvic vein embolisation; pelvic vein reflux; varicose veins; venous reflux.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Cohort Studies
  • Humans
  • Iliac Vein / diagnostic imaging*
  • Magnetic Resonance Angiography*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Phlebography*
  • Recurrence
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed*
  • Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex*
  • Varicose Veins / diagnostic imaging*
  • Varicose Veins / epidemiology
  • Varicose Veins / therapy*