Numerous environmental, physiological, and pathological insults disrupt protein-folding homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), referred to as ER stress. Eukaryotic cells evolved a set of intracellular signaling pathways, collectively termed the unfolded protein response (UPR), to maintain a productive ER protein-folding environment through reprogramming gene transcription and mRNA translation. The UPR is largely dependent on transcription factors (TFs) that modulate expression of genes involved in many physiological and pathological conditions, including development, metabolism, inflammation, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. Here we summarize the current knowledge about these mechanisms, their impact on physiological/pathological processes, and potential therapeutic applications.
Keywords: ER stress; transcription factors; unfolded protein response.
© 2017 Han and Kaufman; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.