MAP kinases (MAPK) are the most downstream kinases in signal transduction cascades and regulate critical cellular activities such as cell proliferation, differentiation, mortality, stress response, and apoptosis. The Leishmania donovani MAPK1 (LdMAPK1) is involved in parasite viability and drug resistance, but its substrates have not been identified yet. Aiming to identify the possible targets(s) of LdMAPK1, we sought to isolate interacting partners by co-immunoprecipitation, gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Out of fifteen analyzed protein bands, four were identified as subunits of the HSP90 foldosome complex, namely HSP 90, HSP70, STI and SGT. Western blot analysis not only confirmed that LdMAPK1 interacts with HSP70 and HSP90 but also demonstrated that MAPK1 abundance modulates their expression. The interaction is sensitive to treatment with AMTZD, a competitive ERK inhibitor. MAPK1 also displayed kinase activity with HSP90 or HSP70 as substrates. By phosphorylating HSPs in the foldosome complex, MAPK1 may regulate the stability and activity of the foldosome which in turn plays a pivotal role in the parasitic life cycle of L. donovani. Our study therefore implicates LdMAPK1 in the post-translational modification and possibly the regulation of heat shock proteins. Conversely, HSP90 and HSP70 are identified as the first substrates of LdMAPK1.