125I-labeled liposomes, conjugated to an anti-Thy 1.1 monoclonal antibody (MRCOX7), demonstrated up to 7.4-fold greater lymph node uptake than liposomes conjugated to non-specific monoclonal antibody (R-10) after intravenous injection into Thy 1.1 (AKR-J) mice. Uptake of anti-Thy 1.1-conjugated liposomes by the lymph nodes of AKR-J mice was 3-times greater than their uptake by lymph nodes of Thy 1.2 (AKR-Cu) mice. Lymph node localization of anti-Thy 1.1-liposomes was equal to that of control monoclonal antibody-liposomes in Thy 1.2 mice. Conjugation to either monoclonal antibody substantially increased liposome clearance by the liver, while decreasing liposome uptake in a number of organs outside the reticuloendothelial system. Changes in liposome size and phospholipid composition did not significantly alter these results. Administration of a large predose of unconjugated liposomes prior to injection of MRCOX7-conjugated liposomes increased blood levels and reduced liver uptake of the monoclonal antibody-liposome conjugates, but did not further enhance lymph node uptake. This study demonstrates that targeting of liposomes by conjugation to the appropriate monoclonal antibody, can significantly increase their uptake in lymph nodes which contain high levels of cells expressing the target antigen. However, conjugation to monoclonal antibody also increases clearance of liposomes by the liver. To increase the uptake of monoclonal antibody-conjugated liposomes in target tissue, substantial reduction of their clearance by the reticuloendothelial system will be required.