Adaptation of Intestinal and Bile Acid Physiology Accompany the Metabolic Benefits Following Ileal Interposition in the Rat

Obes Surg. 2018 Mar;28(3):725-734. doi: 10.1007/s11695-017-2886-0.


Purpose: Ileal interposition recapitulates many of the metabolic improvements similar to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. We aimed to determine whether the metabolic improvements seen following ileal interposition were conferred solely by the interposed segment by examining changes in neighboring intestinal segments as well as the composition of the bile acid pool.

Materials and methods: Adult male rats were treated with either sham or ileal interposition surgeries. Glucose tolerance tests, body composition analysis, polymer chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and mass spectrometry were done after the surgeries.

Results: This study showed that ileal interposition improved glucose tolerance and enhanced both fasting and glucose-stimulated GLP-1 secretion in diabetic rats. Total bile acid pool was similar between groups but the composition favored glycine-conjugation in rats with ileal interposition. Insulin secretion was highly correlated with the 12-alpha-hydroxylase index of activity. The interposed ileum exhibited an increase in mRNA for preproglucagon and peptide YY; however, the bile acid transporter, apical sodium bile acid transporter, was dramatically reduced compared to sham rats. The interposed segment becomes jejunized in its new location as indicated by an increase in Glut2 and Pepck mRNA, genes predominantly synthesized within the jejunum.

Conclusion: Ileal relocation alone can significantly alter the bile acid pool to favor a more insulin-sensitive metabolism in association with intestinal wide alterations in mRNA for a variety of genes. Ileal interposition may confer metabolic improvement via both the interposed segment and the associated intestinal changes in all segments of the intestine, including the colon.

Keywords: Intestine and bile changes after ileal interposition.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Physiological / genetics*
  • Adaptation, Physiological / physiology
  • Animals
  • Bile Acids and Salts / metabolism*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental / surgery
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Glucose / metabolism
  • Ileum / physiopathology*
  • Ileum / surgery
  • Insulin / metabolism
  • Insulin Resistance / genetics*
  • Insulin Resistance / physiology
  • Intestinal Mucosa / metabolism
  • Intestines / physiopathology*
  • Intestines / surgery
  • Male
  • Obesity, Morbid / metabolism
  • Obesity, Morbid / surgery
  • Rats


  • Bile Acids and Salts
  • Insulin
  • Glucose