Linkage studies using restriction fragment length polymorphisms were conducted in the X-linked disorder, choroideremia, designated TCD for Progressive Tapeto-Choroidal Dystrophy. Previously demonstrated close linkage with locus DXYS1 was confirmed (lod 11.44 at 0 recombination distance). In addition, locus DXYS12 was found to be closely linked with TCD (lod 3.31 at 0 recombination distance). The disease mainly occurs in three large kindreds in remote Northern Finland. While formal genealogical proof is lacking, all presently living (more than 80 affected males and 120 carrier females) probably originate from a common founder couple born in 1644 and 1646, twelve generations ago. All 36 patients and 48 carriers tested from the three kindreds had the same haplotype (TCD/DXYS1, 11kb/DXYS12, 1.6kb). Given that at least 105 female meioses transmitting TCD have occurred since 1650 in these kindreds, extremely close linkage between TCD, DXYS1 and DXYS12 is suggested. The above haplotype is a very useful diagnostic tool in these TCD families. We suggest that our historical-genealogical approach to linkage analysis may be possible elsewhere in similar isolated populations.