Evaluation of the Augmented Infant Resuscitator: A Monitoring Device for Neonatal Bag-Valve-Mask Resuscitation

Anesth Analg. 2018 Mar;126(3):947-955. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000002432.


Background: Annually, 6 million newborns require bag-valve-mask resuscitation, and providing live feedback has the potential to improve the quality of resuscitation. The Augmented Infant Resuscitator (AIR), a real-time feedback device, has been designed to identify leaks, obstructions, and inappropriate breath rates during bag-valve-mask resuscitation. However, its function has not been evaluated.

Methods: The resistance of the AIR was measured by attaching it between a ventilator and a ventilator tester. To test the device's reliability in training and clinical-use settings, it was placed in-line between a ventilation bag or ventilator and a neonatal manikin and a clinical lung model simulator. The lung model simulator simulated neonates of 3 sizes (2, 4, and 6 kg). Leaks, obstructions, and respiratory rate alterations were introduced.

Results: At a flow of 5 L/min, the pressure drop across the AIR was only 0.38 cm H2O, and the device had almost no effect on ventilator breath parameters. During the manikin trials, it was able to detect all leaks and obstructions, correctly displaying an alarm 100% of the time. During the simulated clinical trials, the AIR performed best on the 6-kg neonatal model, followed by the 4-kg model, and finally the 2-kg model. Over all 3 clinical models, the prototype displayed the correct indicator 73.5% of the time, and when doing so, took 1.6 ± 0.9 seconds.

Conclusions: The AIR is a promising innovation that has the potential to improve neonatal resuscitation. It introduces only marginal resistance and performs well on neonatal manikins, but its firmware should be improved before clinical use.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation / instrumentation*
  • Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation / standards
  • Equipment Design / instrumentation*
  • Equipment Design / standards
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Laryngeal Masks / standards
  • Manikins*
  • Respiration, Artificial / instrumentation*
  • Respiration, Artificial / standards
  • Ventilators, Mechanical* / standards