High-energy breakfast based on whey protein reduces body weight, postprandial glycemia and HbA 1C in Type 2 diabetes

J Nutr Biochem. 2017 Nov;49:1-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2017.07.005. Epub 2017 Jul 21.

Abstract

Acute studies show that addition of whey protein at breakfast has a glucose-lowering effect through increased incretin and insulin secretion. However, whether this is a long-term effect in Type 2 diabetes is unknown. Fifty-six Type 2 diabetes participants aged 58.9±4.5 years, BMI 32.1±0.9 kg/m2 and HbA1C 7.8±0.1% (61.6±0.79 mmol/mol) were randomized to one of 3 isocaloric diets with similar lunch and dinner, but different breakfast: 1) 42 g total protein, 28 g whey (WBdiet, n=19); 2) 42 g various protein sources (PBdiet, n=19); or 3) high-carbohydrate breakfast, 17 g protein from various sources (CBdiet, n=18). Body weight and HbA1C were examined after 12 weeks. All participants underwent three all-day meal challenges for postprandial glycemia, insulin, C-peptide, intact glucagon-like peptide 1 (iGLP-1), ghrelin and hunger and satiety scores. Overall postprandial AUCglucose was reduced by 12% in PBdiet and by 19% in WBdiet, compared with CBdiet (P<.0001). Compared with PBdiet and CBdiet, WBdiet led to a greater postprandial overall AUC for insulin, C-peptide, iGLP-1 and satiety scores, while postprandial overall AUC for ghrelin and hunger scores were reduced (P<.0001). After 12 weeks, HbA1C was reduced after WBdiet by 0.89±0.05% (11.5±0.6 mmol/mol), after PBdiet by 0.6±0.04% (7.1±0.31 mmol/mol) and after CBdiet by 0.36±0.04% (2.9±0.31 mmol/mol) (P<.0001). Furthermore, the participants on WBdiet lost 7.6±0.3 kg, PBdiet 6.1±0.3 kg and CBdiet 3.5±0.3 kg (P<.0001). Whey protein-based breakfast is an important adjuvant in the management of Type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: Breakfast; Diabetes; Protein; Weight; Whey.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Body Mass Index
  • Breakfast*
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / diet therapy*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy
  • Diet, Diabetic*
  • Diet, Reducing*
  • Energy Intake*
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / analysis
  • Humans
  • Hyperglycemia / prevention & control
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Male
  • Metformin / therapeutic use
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity / complications
  • Obesity / diet therapy*
  • Satiety Response
  • Weight Loss
  • Whey Proteins / therapeutic use*

Substances

  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Whey Proteins
  • hemoglobin A1c protein, human
  • Metformin