Ethnopharmacological relevance: The compound epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenolic compound present in green tea [Camellia sinensis (Theaceae], has shown numerous cardiovascular health promoting activity through modulating various pathways. However, molecular understanding of the cardiovascular protective role of EGCG has not been reported.
Aim of the review: This review aims to compile the preclinical and clinical studies that had been done on EGCG to investigate its protective effect on cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in order to provide a systematic guidance for future research.
Materials and methods: Research papers related to EGCG were obtained from the major scientific databases, for example, Science direct, PubMed, NCBI, Springer and Google scholar, from 1995 to 2017.
Results: EGCG was found to exhibit a wide range of therapeutic properties including anti-atherosclerosis, anti-cardiac hypertrophy, anti-myocardial infarction, anti-diabetes, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. These therapeutic effects are mainly associated with the inhibition of LDL cholesterol (anti-atherosclerosis), inhibition of NF-κB (anti-cardiac hypertrophy), inhibition of MPO activity (anti-myocardial infarction), reduction in plasma glucose and glycated haemoglobin level (anti-diabetes), reduction of inflammatory markers (anti-inflammatory) and the inhibition of ROS generation (antioxidant).
Conclusion: EGCG shows different biological activities and in this review, a compilation of how this bioactive molecule plays its role in treating cardiovascular and metabolic diseases was discussed.
Keywords: Anti-inflammatory; Antioxidant; Atherosclerosis; Diabetes; EGCG; Heart failure.
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